Safevi Ülkesinin İngiliz Konukları (İngiliz Tacirlerin İran Seyahatleri, 1562-1581)


Makale | 2012 | History Studies International Journal of History Academic Journal

English merchants participated in overseas trade in the 16th century and gradually increased their roles in this trade. Joint-stock companies, which were sponsored by the Kingdom of England, were the greatest factor in this increase. One of those joint-stock companies was founded in Russia in 1553 and took control of the Russian trade in a short time. Meantime Anthony Jenkinson was appointed as captain-general of the Muscovy Company in 1557. His initial step was to make an expedition of discovery to Caspian Sea and beyond. He noticed commercial potential of Persia during his expedition. Thereupon, he went to Persia as an envoy to co . . .nvey a letter from Queen Elizabeth I. His aim was to obtain some privileges for the English merchants from Shah Tahmasb. But his demand was rejected by the Shah. However, Muscovy Company decided to maintain the journeys to Persia. So, it organized five more journeys until 1581. Those journeys were the first diplomatic and commercial relations between the Safavids and the England Daha fazlası Daha az

Comparison of three different orthodontic wires for bonded lingual retainer fabrication


Makale | 2012 | The Korean Association of Orthodontists

Objective We evaluated the detachment force, amount of deformation, fracture mode, and pull-out force of 3 different wires used for bonded lingual retainer fabrication. Methods We tested 0.0215-inch five-stranded wire (PentaOne, Masel; group I), 0.016 × 0.022-inch dead-soft eight-braided wire (Bond-A-Braid, Reliance; group II), and 0.0195-inch dead-soft coaxial wire (Respond, Ormco; group III). To test detachment force, deformation, and fracture mode, we embedded 94 lower incisor teeth in acrylic blocks in pairs. Retainer wires were bonded to the teeth and vertically directed force was applied to the wire. To test pull-out forc . . .e, wires were embedded in composite that was placed in a hole at the center of an acrylic block. Tensile force was applied along the long axis of the wire. Results Detachment force and mode of fracture were not different between groups. Deformation was significantly higher in groups II and III than in group I (p < 0.001). Mean pull-out force was significantly higher for group I compared to groups II and III (p < 0.001). Conclusions Detachment force and fracture mode were similar for all wires, but greater deformations were seen in dead-soft wires. Wire pull-out force was significantly higher for five-stranded coaxial wire than for the other wires tested. Five-stranded coaxial wires are suggested for use in bonded lingual retainers Daha fazlası Daha az

Mandibular anterior bony support and incisor crowding: Is there a relationship?


Makale | 2012 | American Association of Orthodontists

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that increased irregularity of the mandibular incisors is associated with a reduction in the alveolar support on cone-beam computed tomographic sections. METHODS: From a sample of 1100 digital volumetric tomographs, 125 tomographs of subjects with Class I malocclusion (mean age, 21.6 ± 4.8 years) were selected for this study. An irregularity index was used to categorize these tomographs as having mild, moderate, or severe crowding. All tomographs were taken by using an iCAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, Pa) imaging device. The following parameters we . . .re measured on the sections corresponding to the 4 mandibular incisors with the iCAT software: height, thickness, and area of the entire symphysis; height, thickness, and area of the cancellous bone of the symphysis; and distance between the vestibular and lingual cortices. For the statistical evaluation, independent samples t test, analysis of variance, and the Tukey HSD test were used at an alpha level 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a simple linear regression were calculated to determine the relationship between mandibular anterior bony support and incisor crowding. RESULTS: Almost all mandibular anterior bone measurements were greater in the male subjects than in the female subjects (height of the mandibular symphysis, P Daha fazlası Daha az

Dehiscence and fenestration in patients with different vertical growth patterns assessed with cone-beam computed tomography


Makale | 2012 | The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the presence of alveolar defects (dehiscence and fenestration) was not different among patients with different vertical growth patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 1872 teeth in 26 hyper-divergent (mean age: 24.4 6 4.8 years), 27 hypo-divergent (mean age: 25.1 6 4.5 years), and 25 normo-divergent (mean age: 23.6 6 4.1 years) patients with no previous orthodontic treatment were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. Axial and cross-sectional views were evaluated with regard to whether dehiscence and/or fenestration on buccal and lingual surfaces existed or not. For stat . . .istical analysis, the Pearson chi-square test was used at a P , .05 significance level. Results: According to the statistical analysis, the hypo-divergent group (6.56%) had lower dehiscence prevalence than the hyper-divergent (8.35%) and normo-divergent (8.18%) groups (P 5 .004). Higher prevalences of dehiscence and fenestration were found on buccal sides in all vertical growth patterns. While fenestration was a common finding for the maxillary alveolar region, dehiscence was a common finding in the mandible in all groups. Conclusion: The null hypothesis was rejected. Although the prevalence of fenestrations was not different, significant differences for dehiscences were found in patients with different vertical growth patterns Daha fazlası Daha az

Ethnic differences in the soft tissue profiles of Turkish and European–American young adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces


Makale | 2012 | Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society

The aim of this study was to evaluate soft tissue differences between Turkish and North American adults by comparing two sample populations with ideal occlusion and well-balanced faces. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 117 Anatolian Turkish adults (65 female and 52 male, mean age: 23.9 ± 2.8 years) were compared with a sample of 116 adults of European–American ancestry (64 female and 52 male, mean age: 25.0 ± 6.8 years). The cephalometric analyses of Holdaway, Epker, and Legan and Burstone were performed using Dolphin Image Software 9.0. Thirty-two measurements (27 linear and 5 angular) were analysed. For statistical evaluation, . . . independent samples t-tests were performed. Distinct differences were found between the two samples in facial convexity, upper lip position and length, lower lip position, chin prominence, and chin thickness. Vertical proportional findings were similar between groups. Ethnic differences were found between Turkish and North American adults in the soft tissue profile. It is appropriate to consider these differences during routine diagnosis and treatment planning of a Turkish patient or an American patient of European ancestry Daha fazlası Daha az

Do enamel microabrasion and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate affect shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to a demineralized enamel surface?


Makale | 2012 | The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation

Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of enamel microabrasion, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), and their combination on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to demineralized enamel surface. Materials and Methods: One hundred human first premolar teeth were randomly allocated to one of five groups. Group I was considered as the control of other groups. For the remaining groups, demineralization was performed via solutions. In group II, brackets were directly bonded to the demineralized enamel surface. CPP-ACP was applied in group III, microabrasion was performed in grou . . .p IV, and both microabrasion and CPP-ACP application were performed in group V. The specimens were tested for SBS. Bond failures were scored according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used to compare the SBS of the groups. ARI scores of the groups were evaluated with a G-test. The statistical significance was set at P Daha fazlası Daha az

Evaluation of root resorption following rapid maxillary expansion using cone-beam computed tomography


Makale | 2012 | The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation

Objective: To evaluate the root resorption after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Records of 25 patients who had undergone RME with tooth-borne banded expander were obtained from the archive of the orthodontic department. CBCT data were reconstructed with surface and volume rendering, and the volumetric images were manipulated to display the root surfaces from various orientations. On these three-dimensional images, permanent first molars and first and second premolars were segmented, and their roots were isolated. Volumes of roots were calculated. The difference . . . between pre-expansion and postexpansion root volumes was statistically evaluated with a paired-samples t-test. Also, the percentage of root volume loss was calculated for each root and statistically compared with each other with one-way analysis of variance at the P , .05 level. Results: The difference between the pre-expansion and postexpansion root volumes was statistically significant for all roots investigated. Maximum volume decrease was observed for the mesiobuccal root of first molar teeth (18.60 mm3). It was determined that the distobuccal root of first molar teeth was less affected from the expansion procedure (9.47 mm3). No statistically significant difference was found for the percentage of root volume loss. Conclusion: Following RME treatment, significant root volume loss was observed for all investigated posterior teeth. However, the percentage of volume loss was not statistically different among roots. (Angle Orthod. 2012;82:488–494. Daha fazlası Daha az

Resonance frequency analysis of orthodontic miniscrews subjected to light-emitting diode photobiomodulation therapy


Makale | 2012 | European Orthodontic Society

The aim of this prospective experimental study was to evaluate the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on the stability of immediately loaded miniscrews under different force levels, as assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Sixty titanium orthodontic miniscrews with a length of 8 mm and a diameter of 1.4 mm were implanted into cortical bone by closed flap technique in each proximal tibia of 15 New Zealand white adult male rabbits (n = 30). The animals were randomly divided into irradiated and control groups under different force levels (0, 150, and 300 cN). OsseoPulse® LED device (Biolux R . . .esearch Ltd.) 618 nm wavelength and 20 mW/cm2 output power irradiation (20 minutes/day) was applied to the miniscrews for 10 days. The RFA records were performed at miniscrew insertion session (T1) and 21 days after surgery (T2). Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for statistical evaluation at P < 0.005 level. It was found that initial primer stability of all miniscrews was similar in all groups at the start of the experimental procedure. Statistically significant differences were found for changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values between LED-photobiomodulated group and the control (0 cN, P = 0.001; 150 cN, P < 0.001; and 300 cN, P < 0.001). Significant increase was found in ISQ values of LPT applied miniscrews under 0 cN (+11.63 ISQ), 150 cN (+10.50 ISQ), and 300 cN (+7.00 ISQ) force during observation period. By the increase of force levels, it was determined that ISQ values decreased in non-irradiated control miniscrews. Within the limits of this in vivo study, the present RFA findings suggest that LPT might have a favourable effect on healing and attachment of titanium orthodontic miniscrews Daha fazlası Daha az

Measurements from conventional, digital and CT-derived cephalograms: a comparative study


Makale | 2012 | Australian Society of Orthodontists

Objective: The purpose of this retrospective radiographic study was to determine the reliability and reproducibility of skeletal and dental measurements of lateral cephalograms created from a computerised tomography (CT) scan compared with conventional and digital lateral cephalograms. Methods: CT and conventional lateral cephalograms of the same patients were obtained from university archives. The lateral cephalometric radiographs of 30 patients were manually traced. The radiographs were subsequently scanned and traced using Dolphin Imaging software version 11 (Dolphin Imaging, Chatsworth, CA, USA). The CT-created lateral ceph . . .alograms were also traced using the same software. Sixteen (10 angular and 6 linear) measurements were performed. Cephalometric measurements obtained from conventional, digital and CT-created cephalograms were statistically compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was set at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. Results: The intra-rater reliability test for each method showed high values (r > 0.90) except for mandibular length which had a correlation of 0.82 for the CT-created cephalogram. Five measurements (N-A-Pog, N-S, ANS-PNS, Co-ANS and Co-Gn) were found to be significantly different between the CT-created and conventional cephalograms and three measurements (SNB, ANB, and /1-MP) were found to be significantly different between the CT-created and digital cephalograms. Conclusions: There are statistically-significant differences in measurements produced using a traditional manual analysis, a direct digital analysis or a 3D CT-derived cephalometric analysis of orthodontic patients. These differences are, on average, small but because of individual variation, may be of considerable clinical significance in some patients Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of demineralizaton-inhibition procedures on the bond strength of brackets bonded to demineralized enamel surface


Makale | 2012 | The Korean Association of Orthodontists

Objective: To study and compare the effects of different demineralizationinhibition methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) and fracture mode of an adhesive used to bond orthodontic brackets to demineralized enamel surfaces. Methods: Eighty freshly extracted, human maxillary premolars were divided into 4 equal groups and demineralized over the course of 21 days. Brackets were bonded to the demineralized enamel of teeth in Group 1. In Group 2, bonding was performed following resin infi ltration (ICON®, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Before bonding, pre-treatment with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) or solutions containing casei . . .n phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with 2% neutral sodium fluoride (CPP-ACP/wF) was performed in Groups 3 and 4, respectively. Th e SBS values of the brackets were measured and recorded following mechanical shearing of the bracket from the tooth surface. Th e adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined aft er the brackets failed. Statistical comparisons were performed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-tests, and G-tests. Results: Significant differences were found in some of the intergroup comparisons of the SBS values (F = 39.287, p < 0.001). No signifi cant diff erences were found between the values for the APF-gel and control groups, whereas signifi cantly higher SBS values were recorded for the resin-infi ltrated and CPPACP/ wF-treated groups. Th e ARI scores were also signifi cantly diff erent among the 4 groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Tooth surfaces exposed to resin infi ltration and CPP-ACP/wF application showed higher debonding forces than the untreated, demineralized surfaces Daha fazlası Daha az

Comparison of craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position with different breathing patterns


Makale | 2012 | Elsevier

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position between mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) patients. Methods: Mouth breathing patients comprised 34 skeletal Class I subjects with a mean age of 12.8 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–15.2 years). Thirty-two subjects with skeletal Class I relationship were included in the NB group (mean 13.5 ±1.3 years; range: 12.2–14.8 years). Twenty-seven measurements (15 angular and 12 linear) were used for the craniofacial analysis. Additionally, 12 measurements were evaluated for head posture (eight measurement . . .s) and hyoid bone position (four measurements). Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Probability values Daha fazlası Daha az

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