Introduction: The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess the effects of varying force directions on the
dynamic measurement of natural head position and orofacial airway dimensions of Class III patients during maxillary
orthopedic protraction compared with an untreated control group. Methods: The conventional facemask
group comprised 15 patients (8 girls, 7 boys; mean age, 9.6 6 1.3 years), the modified facemask group comprised
15 patients (7 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 9.5 6 1.5 years), and the control group comprised 15 subjects
(7 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 9.8 6 1.6 years). Natural head position measurements and ce . . .phalometric records
were obtained from all subjects before and after treatment or the control period (approximately 1 year). An inclinometer
and a portable data logger were used to collect the dynamic natural head position data. For statistical
comparisons, paired samples t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post-hoc Tukey tests were used at the
P\0.05 level. Results: Both treatment groups showed statistically significant changes in the sagittal (pitch)
measurements of natural head position and upper pharynx, aerial, and total area of airway measurements during
the treatment period. In the control group, the only statistically significant change was an increased upper
pharynx measurement (P 5 0.020). According to the intergroup comparisons, statistically significant natural
head position differences were found in the conventional (6.4 flexion) and the modified (5.7 flexion) facemask
groups when compared with the controls. The modified facemask group also showed significant changes in aerial
(P 5 0.003) and total (P\0.001) areas of the airway measurements compared with the control group. No
statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment groups. Conclusions: These findings
suggest that modified and conventional facemask therapy with expansion have significant cranial flexion
effects on the dynamic measurements of natural head position. Additionally, the modified facemask procedure
showed significant effects on the orofacial airway dimensions compared with the initial values and the values of
the untreated controls
Objectives: The aims of the present study were (1) to determine ethnic differences in craniofacial
dimensions between Turkish and Saudi populations and (2) to identify possible gender differences
between males and females, based on a sample of untreated young adult subjects with
normal occlusions and well-balanced faces.
Methods: In total, 163 cephalometric radiographs were traced and evaluated to compare
untreated adults of Turkish and Saudi ethnicity. The Turkish group comprised 86 subjects; 45
females and 41 males. The Saudi group comprised 77 subjects; 39 females and 38 males. For statistical
evaluation, an independent-sa . . .mples t-test was performed.
Results: The Turkish sample had a more retrognathic maxilla and mandible (p< 0.001 for SNA
and SNB) and a more vertical direction of facial development (p< 0.001), with Turkish males having
more retrusive lips (p< 0.001). Distinctive ethnic differences were found in craniofacial structures
between Turkish and Saudi young adults.
Conclusions: It is appropriate to consider these aesthetic differences when a Turkish or a Saudi
patient is being evaluated during routine diagnosis and treatment planning
Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) there is no difference in mandibular asymmetry between
the crossbite and normal side in a unilateral crossbite group (UCG) and between the right and left
sides in a bilateral crossbite group (BCG) and a control group (CG); and (2) there is no significant
difference in mandibular asymmetry among crossbite groups and control group.
Materials and Methods: The cone-beam computed tomography scans of three groups were
studied: (1) 15 patients (6 male, 9 female; mean age: 13.51 6 2.03 years) with unilateral posterior
crossbite; (2) 15 patients (8 male, 7 female; mean age: 13.36 6 2.12 years) . . . with bilateral posterior
crossbite; and (3) 15 patients (8 male, 7 female; mean age: 13.46 6 1.53 years) as a control group.
Fourteen parameters (eight linear, three surface, and three volumetric) were measured. Side
comparisons were analyzed with paired samples t-test, and for the intergroup comparison, analysis
of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used at the P , .05 level.
Results: According to side comparisons, no statistically significant difference was found in the
UCG. There were statistically significant differences in hemimandibular (P 5 .008) and ramal (P 5
.004) volumes for the BCG and in ramal height (P 5 .024) and body length (P 5 .021) for the CG.
Intergroup comparisons revealed significant differences in hemimandibular (P 5 .002) and body
volume (P , .001) for the normal side of the UCG and left sides of the other groups, and in angular
unit length (P 5 .025) and condylar width (P 5 .007) for the crossbite side of the UCG and the right
sides of the other groups.
Conclusions: Contrary to UCG, CG and BCG were found to have side-specific asymmetry.
Skeletal components of the mandible have significant asymmetry among the crossbite groups and
Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of an antibacterial monomer-containing selfetching
adhesive in reducing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets in vivo and to compare it
with the conventional adhesive system quantitatively. Methods: Fourteen orthodontic patients were randomly
divided into 2 equal groups; they received brackets fitted to all their teeth, bonded with either Clearfil Protect
Bond (Kuraray Medical, Okayama, Japan) (experimental group) or Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif)
(control group). Block randomization to obtain equal numbers in each group was used. After 30 . . . days, all first premolars
were extracted with orthodontic indications and longitudinally sectioned. Demineralization was assessed
by cross-sectional microhardness. Determinations were made at the bracket edge cementing limits and at
occlusal and cervical points 100 and 200 mm away from the edge. In all of these positions, 6 indentations
were made at depths of 10 to 90 mm from the enamel surface. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey
post-hoc test were used. The statistical significance level was set at P\0.05. Results: ANOVA showed statistically
significant differences for adhesive type, position, depth, and their interactions (P\0.05). The multiple
comparison test showed that the antibacterial monomer-containing adhesive was significantly more efficient
than the conventional adhesive system, reducing enamel demineralization in almost all evaluations
(P \0.05). Conclusions: The results indicated that using antibacterial monomer-containing adhesive for
bonding orthodontic brackets successfully inhibited caries in vivo. This cariostatic effect was localized at the
area around the brackets and was significant after 30 days
Objective –The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local resveratrol
(RSVL) administration on bone formation in response to expansion of the interpremaxillary
suture, in rats.
Material and Methods – Twenty 50- to 60-day-old male Wistar rats were separated
into two equal groups. Both groups were subjected to expansion, and 30 cN of force
was applied to the maxillary incisors with helical-spring. Twenty-four hours after
appliance placement, single-dose 10 lmol ⁄ kg RSVL in the dimethylsulfoxide
(DMSO) was injected to the inter-premaxillary suture in the experimental group. In
the control group, the same amount of . . .DMSO was injected to the suture of rats. Bone
formation in the suture was evaluated histomorphometrically. The area of new bone
(lm2), the perimeter around the new bone (lm), Feret s diameter (lm), the
percentage of new bone to non-ossified tissue (%), and the number of osteoblast
were measured and compared. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for statistical
evaluation at p < 0.05 level.
Results – Statistically significant differences were found between the groups for all
histomorphometric parameters. New bone area (p < 0.001), bone perimeter
(p < 0.001), Feret s diameter (p < 0.001), percentage of new bone (p < 0.001), and
the number of osteoblast (p < 0.001) were significantly larger in the experimental
group when compared with the control. Bone histomorphometric measurements
revealed that bone architecture in the RSVL treated rats was improved.
Conclusions – Local application of RSVL during the early stages to orthopedically
expanded inter-premaxillary suture area may stimulate bone formation and shorten
the retention period, in rats
Objective: To determine whether there is any difference between the cleft and non-cleft sides of the mandible
in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients, or the right and left sides in control patients; and
to determine if there is any difference between the mandibular asymmetry of UCLP patients and that of
control patients. Methods: We examined cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 15 patients
with UCLP and 15 age- and gender-matched control patients. We evaluated 8 linear, 3 surface, and 3 volumetric
measurements and compared the cleft/non-cleft sides of UCLP patients and the right/left sides of
controls. Res . . .ults: There were no statistically significant gender differences in any linear, surface, or volumetric
measurement. The single significant side-to-side difference in UCLP patients was a longer coronoid
unit on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (p = 0.046). Body volume was significantly lower in the
UCLP group than in the control group (p = 0.008). Conclusions: In general, UCLP patients have symmetrical
mandibles, although the coronoid unit length is significantly longer on the cleft side than on the
non-cleft side. UCLP patients and controls differed only in body volume
Objective: To identify the effect of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) procedure on dynamic
measurement of natural head position (NHP).
Materials and Methods: The treatment group comprised 23 patients, 12 girls and 11 boys (mean
age: 10.1 6 1.1 years), and the control group comprised 15 subjects, 8 girls and 7 boys (mean age:
9.7 6 1.4 years). The test subjects underwent RME treatment using full cap acrylic device, and the
mean amount of expansion was 5.48 mm. An inclinometer and a portable data logger were used to
collect the NHP data. Intragroup changes were evaluated by using nonparametric Wilcoxon test,
and intergroup chang . . .es were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. P values less than .05 were
considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean difference between initial and final NHP was 0.31u, and this difference was not
statistically significant. Also, there were no statistically significant differences between the RME
and control groups before and after treatment.
Conclusion: Treatment with the RME procedure showed no statistically significant effects on
dynamic measurement of NHP when compared with initial values or untreated control
To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS), fracture mode, wire pull out (WPO) resistance and microleakage between low-shrinking and conventional composites used as a lingual retainer adhesive. Methods: A total of 120 human mandibular incisor teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected. Sixty of them were separated into two groups. To determine the SBS, either Transbond-LR (3M-Unitek) or Silorane (3M-Espe) was applied to the lingual surface of the teeth by packing the material into standard cylindrical plastic matrices (Ultradent) to simulate the lingual retainer bonding area. To test WPO resistance, 20 samples were prep . . .ared for each composite where the wire was embedded in the composite materialand cured. Then tensile stress was applied until failure of the composite occurred. The remaining 60 teeth were divided into two groups and multi-stranded 0.0215-inch diameter wire was bonded with the same composites. Microleakage was evaluated by the dye penetration method. Statistical analyses were performed by Wilcoxon, Pearson chi-square, and Mann-Whitney-U tests at p > 0.05 level. Results: The SBS and WPO results were not statistically significant between the two groups. Significant differences were found between the groups in terms of fracture mode (p > 0.001). Greater percentages of the fractures showed mix type failure (85%) for Silorane and adhesive (60%) for Transbond-LR. Microleakage values were lower in low-shrinking composite than the control and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p > 0.001). Conclusions: Low-shrinking composite produced sufficient SBS, WPO and micro-leakage values on the etched enamel surfaces, when used as a lingual retainer composite
Thanks to official duties Evliya Çelebi went to Iran twice in 1646-1647 and in
1655. First time he was sent as an envoy by Defterdarzade Mehmed Pasa to Kalb
Ali Khan, the governor of Tabriz. During his duty Evliya Çelebi traveled around
the north of the Safavid territories (Azerbaijan, Shirvan, Daghestan and Georgia)
and returned to Erzurum. In this study initially the route of his journey is
discussed. Then, information given by him about history and physical conditions
of the castles on his route were evaluated.
Evliya Çelebi, 1646-47'de ve 1655'de iki kez resmi görevlerle İran'a gitti. Bunlardan ilkinde Defterdarzâde Mehmed . . . Paşa tarafından Tebriz Valisi Kelb Ali Han'a elçi olarak gönderildi. Vazifesi süresince Safevi ülkesinin kuzey topraklarını (Azerbaycan, Şirvan, Dağıstan ve Gürcistan) dolaşıp, Erzurum'a döndü. Bu çalış- mada ilk olarak bu seyahatin güzergâhı ele alınmıştır. Sonra güzergâhı üzerinde bulunan kalelerin fiziksel durumuna ve tarihine dair verdiği bilgiler değerlendirilmiştir
Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the changes in mandibular arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of mandibular posterior teeth after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Methods: Baseline and post expansion cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images of patients who initially had bilateral posterior cross-bite and underwent RME with a banded type expander were assessed in this study. The patients included 9 boys (mean age: 13.97 1.17 years) and 11 girls (mean age: 13.53 2.12 years). Images obtained 6 months after retention were available for 10 of these patients. Eighteen angular and 43 linear measurements were performed f . . .or the maxilla and mandible. The measurements were performed on frontally clipped images at the following time points; before expansion (T1), after expansion (T2), and after retention (T3). Statistical significance was assessed with paired sample t test at 0.05. Results: T1 T2 comparisons showed statistically significant post RME increases for all measurements; similarly, T2 T1 and T3 T1 comparisons showed statistically significant changes. The maxillary linear and angular measurements showed decreases after expansion, and mandibular linear and angular measurements increased after retention. Conclusion: All mandibular arch widths increased and mandibular posterior teeth were uprighted after RME procedure